Raising the younger generation physically healthy is an important task for the family and the school. Unfortunately, today only 27% of preschool children are practically healthy, only 65% of children and 60% of adolescents are physically harmoniously developed. The role of physical education definition.
A component of comprehensive harmonious development of personality is physical education.
Physical education – a system of socio-pedagogical measures aimed at strengthening the health and hardening of the body, the harmonious development of forms, functions and physical capabilities of man, the formation of vital motor skills and abilities. The theory and practice of physical education are based on physiological data. Physiological science equips the theory and methods of physical education with the laws of development of the human body, the correct consideration of the influence of various factors on its functional activity. Based on its data, a scientifically sound system of physical exercises aimed at the development of motor actions and the formation of physical qualities of the body is developed.
Raising the younger generation physically healthy is an important task for the family and the school. Unfortunately, today only 27% of preschool children are practically healthy, only 65% of children and 60% of adolescents are physically harmoniously developed. For example, half of high school students have health restrictions on their choice of profession, and at least half of school leavers are unfit or partially fit for other service.
According to Senior Professor, a radical restructuring of the organization of physical education of schoolchildren is needed. First, you should radically change your views on physical education, physical condition, and the beauty of the human body, not to perceive them as something secondary.
The teacher must demonstrate by his own example the importance of physical education, a healthy lifestyle. Secondly, it is absolutely necessary to unload curricula, significantly reducing informative learning in such a way that the total number of subjects is 7-10 in primary school and 10-12 in senior school.
In this case, the work week will not exceed 24-30 hours, including homework. In this way, you can increase the proportion of physical education lessons. Third, it is necessary to abandon the traditional forms and modes of activity in the classroom, when children are constantly sitting almost motionless, and the teacher “inspires” them with knowledge. There is no intensive work of the child, but there is a very harmful to health sitting at a desk without movement.
Fourth, a complete revision of the concepts and methods of physical education at school is needed. It should become a form of active recreation and should work for the health, upbringing and satisfaction of the physiological needs of the child.
The content of physical education of schoolchildren is determined by the curriculum of the subject and the programs of sections and circles. The program provides:
Assimilation of theoretical information (knowledge of general hygiene and hygiene of physical exercises, information necessary for independent physical exercises). Theoretical material is reported in the introductory classes and in the system of educational and training work in the classroom in connection with the exercises;
Gymnastic exercises that contribute to the overall physical development of students
gymnastic exercises that promote the general physical development of students (lineup and rearrangement, military exercises, exercises aimed at the general development of the child, the formation of correct posture, acrobatic exercises, dance exercises, climbing and climbing, balance exercises, exercises in heights and stops, support jumps);
- Athletics (various types of running, long jump and high jump, distance throwing);
- Mobile games designed to develop students’ intelligence, agility, speed of action, education of collectivism and discipline;
- Sports games (basketball, volleyball, handball, football);
- Ski training (mastering the basic techniques of skiing techniques, development of motor skills);
- Cross-country and skating training;
- Swimming (rabbit on the chest and back, breaststroke, as well as diving and rescue techniques for drowning).
The difficulty of implementing the program is that in one lesson you have to master the elements of several sections.
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The content of physical education for all years of schooling at school is selected in such a way as to ensure:
- Strengthening the health and hardening of the body of schoolchildren, promoting their physical development and improving efficiency. The formation and development of the basic functions of the body, which occurs during the school years, requires the use of all factors that positively affect this process. Taking care of students’ health is the main task of every teacher in every lesson.
- Formation and improvement of motor skills and abilities and communication of related knowledge. The purpose of physical education – the formation of vital skills and abilities in natural movements: running, jumping, skiing, swimming. This requires knowledge of the ways and rules of performing motor actions that students acquire during explanations and demonstrations.
- Development of basic motor skills. To perform many actions, a person needs certain qualities, including strength – the ability to overcome external resistance or counteract it through muscular effort; speed – the ability to perform movements in a minimum period of time; endurance – the ability to perform certain work for a long time; flexibility – the ability to perform movements with a large amplitude; agility – the ability to quickly learn new movements and act successfully in changing conditions. These motor qualities develop and are manifested in close connection;
- Formation of habit and lasting interest in regular exercise. The positive impact of exercise is possible only if they are performed systematically, which grows into a habit and a need. To bring up such a need, it is necessary to arouse the child’s interest in exercises, to select interesting exercises, to encourage the student to perform them in time. Meaningful leisure promotes active recreation and spiritual improvement of schoolchildren. Important in the formation of the habit of exercise is the correct mode of the day and week, a healthy diet, enough sleep over time. Unacceptable use of alcohol, nicotine, drugs.
- Education of hygienic skills, communication of knowledge about physical exercises and hardening. Hygienic education students receive while studying various subjects, including biology. In the process of physical exercises learn the rules of their application, learn about the effects of exercise on the body, the hygienic requirements for hardening. At the same time, students master the techniques of self-control over their ability to work, fatigue, heart rate, general well-being.
- They are understood as motor actions, specially organized and consciously performed in accordance with the laws and tasks of physical education. Exercises include gymnastics, games, tourism, and sports.
- A special type of physical improvement, covering a variety of exercises:
- Military and ordinal (training of rational ways of line-ups, rearrangements and movements for the purpose of education of skills of collective actions);
- general developing (involve the development of both individual parts of the body and the whole organism);
- free exercises (improvement of coordination of movements, development of sense of rhythm, beauty of movements);
- Applied as a means of comprehensive personal development (running, jumping, throwing, etc.);
- gymnastic – exercises on various special shells (acrobatic, developing strength, agility, ability to navigate in space;
- Rhythmic gymnastics exercises as a means of physical and aesthetic education).
Games. Satisfying the natural attraction of children and adolescents to physical activity, games arouse collective experiences, give joy to joint efforts, and help to strengthen camaraderie and friendship. In primary classes, mostly mobile games are held, in middle and senior classes – sports.
Tourism. Covers walks, excursions, hikes and trips, which are organized to acquaint students with their homeland, nature, historical and cultural monuments. In such activities, students are physically hardened, learn to be more resilient, acquire applied skills of orientation and movement in a difficult environment, experience of collective life and activity, and in practice learn the rules of responsible attitude to nature.
Sport. Unlike physical culture, sport is always associated with achieving maximum results in certain types of exercise. In acute sports wrestling students overcome significant physical and nervous stress, identify and develop motor and moral qualities.
Natural factors. Among the means of physical education an important role belongs to natural factors (sun, air, water). Acting in conjunction with exercise, they enhance their health effects on students.
Hygienic factors. They cover the hygienic provision of physical education classes, the rational mode of educational work, rest, food, sleep, etc. Gymnasiums, recreational facilities, sports and other equipment must meet certain hygienic requirements for effective physical education classes.
Hygienic norms also regulate the daily routine of a student, which is differentiated depending on the state of health, level of working capacity, specific living conditions and individual characteristics of students. However, common and unique for all students should be morning gymnastics, toilet, school lessons, lunch, afternoon rest, homework, outdoor activities, sports, hobbies, dinner, evening walk, preparation for sleep.
The following methods of exercise are used in physical education classes:
- Frontal – simultaneous performance of exercises by all students. It is used in the training of line-ups and rearrangements, general developmental exercises without objects and with objects, walking, running, dancing exercises, skiing, etc.);
- Streaming – students perform the exercise one after another in turn, flow. There can be several threads. This method is used when performing long jumps, high jumps, balance exercises, acrobatic, climbing, descents and ascents on skis;
- Group – involves the division of students into classes, groups, each of which performs a separate exercise. After a certain time, the groups change places in such a way that each of them performs all the exercises;
- Individual – used when students perform assessment exercises;
- Circular – small groups of students perform a certain number of different exercises, successively moving in a circle from one specially prepared place to perform a certain exercise to another. Exercises that students have already mastered are performed in a circular way.
Various forms of extracurricular physical culture and sports activities contribute to the physical development of schoolchildren. The most common of them:
- Gymnastics before lessons, the purpose of which is to organize students at the beginning of the school day, prevent distortion of posture, increase the efficiency of students during the day, hardening of the body. You need a place to hold it. We should also strive for gymnastics to be done by all students;
- Exercise minutes and breaks to relieve fatigue. To perform the exercises, students come out of desks, loosen collars and straps. Exercises are conducted in grades 1-8 in each lesson after 20-30 minutes of work for 2.5-3 minutes. Children perform 3-4 exercises with 6-8 repetitions. Exercise breaks are also practiced in extended day groups and at home with middle and high school students for 10-15 minutes. Every 50-60 minutes educational work. At such “minutes” it is expedient to work out homework on physical culture;
- Extracurricular activities (clubs and sections), the task of which is to create conditions for instilling in students the habit of regular classes, promoting the introduction of physical culture in everyday life. In extracurricular activities, the knowledge, practical skills and abilities acquired in lessons are consolidated and improved. A characteristic feature of extracurricular activities is their voluntariness;
- Hour of health, which in many schools is held daily after the 2nd or 3rd lesson and lasts 45 minutes. Time for her is freed up due to a long break and reduction of all lessons by 5 minutes. Exercises are performed mainly in the fresh air (students are engaged in sports). Teachers can perform the exercises together with students or a separate group;
- Mass competitions, sports holidays provide a clear organization, observance of certain rituals. All this provides a comprehensive solution to the problems of educating students: physical, moral, aesthetic, etc.
Various systems of martial arts have gained popularity among modern youth. They help to harden young people, cultivate dexterity, endurance.
To draw attention to the problems of physical education, We Should develop a comprehensive program “Physical Education “, which identifies priority areas. Physical education in the educational sphere as an integral part of the general education system should lay the foundations for ensuring and developing physical and moral health, a comprehensive approach to the formation of mental and psychological preparation for active life and professional activity on the principles of individual approach, priority health-oriented, extensive use of various means and forms of physical improvement of the continuity of this process.