Punjab, which literally means “five waters” originally got its name from the river which lend a distinctive geographic character to the country. The five waters are those great rivers that unitedly flow into the Indus almost 500 miles above the river Indus’ mouth. These five rivers are Chenab, Jhelum, Beas. Sutlej and Ravi. In old times this region was called the land of seven rivers of which the above mentioned five rivers were also a part. Besides these five, Indus river flowing at one side and the Saraswati on the other, made it the land of seven rivers.
Punjab was a modern province established by the British, was marked off for administrative purposes as the charge of Punjab government. The region was not bounded by the lines of only one river system. On the West, beyond the Indus, it reaches to the line of the hills running parallel to the river for a long distance. On the other side, beyond Sutlej, it includes a large tract of plian country as far as the Jumna, a river which has different geographical relations.
The ancient seven-river land had very distinct river boundaries as described in certain ancient writings and as were then understood. The eastern boundary, the Saraswati had somewhat obscure history and presented and presented an interesting geographical problem. The Indus and the other five take their rise in the snows of lofty mountains and are great streams at all times, being fed from unfailing resources. The Saraswati, on the other hand, rose in the low outer hills and receiving its water from the periodical rains only, and the springs which they supplied, it remained nearly dry for most part of the year.