Doping in sport can lead to sanctions against athletes. Here are 14 prohibited substances that put athletes at risk. Find out what to avoid. Prohibited substances in sport are on the list published by the World Anti-Doping Agency, and the list is growing every day. Athletes must adhere to this list to avoid serious sanctions.
A positive doping test result may result in the removal of titles, medals, and suspension or even expulsion of the athlete. Read on to learn about the most important substances prohibited in sports.
Substances prohibited in sport
The World Anti-Doping Agency aims to monitor the fight against doping. For this reason, it has compiled a list of substances that are illegal in sports.
There are three large groups of substances: those that are not currently legal, those that are illegal in competition, and those that are not only allowed in certain sports.
These are substances in the experimental or developmental phase. There are no results or complete tests documenting the effect on humans.
Steroids are the best known among these measures. They are a derivative of the sex hormone testosterone. Stanozolol also belongs to the group of anabolic agents, as well as nandrolone and clenbuterol.
Peptide hormones: prohibited substances
Among the substances banned in sport, one of the most common is erythropoietin, also known as EPO. It is an endogenous hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. For example, cyclist Lance Armstrong has lost all the titles he has won in his career due to accepting the EPO. This is one of the most famous cases.
Due to the fact that they dilate the bronchi, they help people with asthma. They forbid it because they make breathing easier and can reduce physical exertion. Beta2-mimetics vilanterol, albuterol, fenoterol and reproterol.
Hormones and metabolism moderators: prohibited substances
These moderators reduce some of the effects of hormones in the body, especially those related to muscle growth and development. For example, this group includes insulin, anti-estrogen substances, and estrogen receptors.
Diuretics and masked prohibited substances
These are substances that are not allowed under any circumstances, including during play, competition, or off-season. Accordingly, their aim is to conceal the use of illegal substances. They affect the kidneys by increasing urine output.
Blood or plasma transfusions are still illegal. Other prohibited activities are dialysis and any other method that modifies blood components.
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Chemical or physical manipulations: prohibited substances
In this case, we do not mean methods that alter blood or urine samples. For example, we mean another person who is not an athlete or who was an athlete consuming illegal substances.
It DOES not widely use, but WADA also has a list of prohibited methods. Nevertheless, rare genetic doping means altering genetic information or the use of modified cells.
Stimulants: obviously prohibited substances
Due to the fact that they increase the level of activity and short-term physical and mental performance, these substances are prohibited in competition. Among the most common stimulants are ephedrine, cocaine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate.
This includes any substances that may have an analgesic or sedative effect on the body. These include, for example, drugs such as morphine, heroin, methadone, oxycodone, and fentanyl.
They are all substances derived from the cannabis plant, both natural and synthetic. Of course, the most common is marijuana. Nevertheless, their impact on athletes and their performance is questionable. Still, they are illegal in sports.
Reducing blood glucose consumption and increasing strength is part of the action of glucocorticosteroids. As a result, they improve their performance in high-intensity competition or in long-lasting competition. Some of them are prednisone, hydrocortisone, and dexamethasone.
Alcohol, a substance prohibited in some sports
When athletes consume alcohol in large amounts, its effects are devastating for the body. In some sports, such as motorsport, alcohol is illegal. This group includes car racing, motorbike sports, speedboat racing, archery, aeronautics, and martial arts such as karate.
Beta-blockers: prohibited substances
The most used substance in this group is propanol. In this case, the main effect is to reduce palpitations and tremors. Therefore, athletes cannot use them in precision sports such as shooting, golf, or archery. They also cannot use them in darts, swimming pools, motorsports, skiing, or snowboarding.
WADA offers a very detailed explanation of Illegal and Prohibited Substances. As mentioned above, their application can mean very severe sanctions for those who choose to adopt them.