At the current stage of education development, the problem of professional orientation is very relevant. The content of educational work in a general educational institution on the professional self-determination of students is aimed at developing the desire for a conscious choice of a profession that corresponds to the abilities and interests of students and includes the formation of ideas about the labor market, professions that are necessary and promising, the qualities of a modern professional and its key qualifications
Psychological and pedagogical studies have established that the early youth period is the most sensitive for professional orientation in the context of the development of holistic self-awareness and self-determination of a person.
According to the psychological dictionary, “Career counseling is a series of psychological, educational and medical measures aimed at optimizing the employment process of young people according to their formed desires, Inclinations and abilities and taking into account the need for specialists in the national economy and society as a whole.”
We define professional self-determination as the most important “personal growth” of students in the process of professional orientation.
Professional tests occupy a special place in the theoretical aspects of consideration of the problem of professional orientation of students. A professional test is a simulation of the elements of a specific type of professional activity, which have a completed form, which contributes to a conscious and justified decision-making about assessment, self-assessment of its performance; this is “fitting” one’s individual characteristics to a specific work in accordance with its requirements. Tests can take place during the educational process and in extracurricular work.
In the course of professional tests, students are informed of basic information about specific types of professional activity; the main elements of various types of professional activity are modeled; the level of students’ readiness to perform tests is determined; conditions for activity are provided. With purposeful professional orientation, the combination of verbal and visual methods with practical ones is important.
Features of the professional test. At each stage, general and special professionally important qualities are diagnosed. The result of each stage and the entire test is the receipt of a completed activity product – a product, the performance of the functional duties of a professional.
The purpose of the test is to form students a holistic view of a specific profession, a group of related professions, and the field that includes them.
The professional test is aimed at the development of interests, inclinations, abilities, professionally important qualities of a person, which is achieved due to the gradual complication of practical tasks according to the level of preparedness of schoolchildren for their implementation, introduction of elements of creativity and independence into the content of the test.
The advantage of the method is that the professional test includes the three most important components of the socio-economic competence of the individual: technological, situational and functional, which allows to reveal the awareness of the optimal suitability of the chosen activity for students and reproduce a holistic image of the profession.
The technological component characterizes the operational side of the profession, assumes mastery of students’ methods of working with work tools, knowledge about the sequence of actions on the subject of work in order to obtain a finished product. This component is aimed at getting acquainted with methods of acquiring knowledge and skills and their application in practical activities. It allows you to reproduce the visual side of professional activity.
The situational component reproduces the meaningful side of professional activity, determines its subject-logical actions. Completing tasks requires students to perform certain mental actions based on experience and knowledge. The student must find a method of activity that corresponds to his natural data and the form of behavior that has developed in him to the greatest extent.
The functional component reflects the dynamic side of professional activity, determines the success of mastering the method of activity with the help of means, methods, internal compensatory mechanisms of students. The indicators that must be achieved based on the task of the sample are fixed.
Self-analysis is carried out in combination with observation, study and evaluation by experts – teachers, psychologists, and parents – for timely correction of self-esteem. After passing the diagnosis, students receive objective information about their personal characteristics. In order to discover their potential, students analyze their character, abilities, skills, intellectual abilities and physical strength. At the stage of introspection, self-knowledge and diagnosis of natural inclinations, interests, and desires are the main ones.
The analysis of professions consists in the study of possible types of occupations, requirements imposed on a person by one or another type of activity. High school students often make their professional choice under the influence of external conditions (family, mass media, public organizations), without possessing objective knowledge about the specifics of the chosen profession.
Early acquaintance with various types of human activity not only expands the child’s general worldview, but also, what is especially important, opens up opportunities for the early manifestation and concretization of his interests and inclinations: ” A person who, since childhood, set a certain goal in relation to his future profession, tries to realize his future place in society, even if it often changes, is unlikely to replenish the army of “difficult teenagers” and the socially disadvantaged contingent of young people.
Professional tests give a teenager the opportunity to gain experience in the activity he has chosen and determine whether its nature corresponds to his abilities and skills.
As a result of passing professional tests, students have the opportunity to test their strength in professions in various fields of activity. Considering the professional test as a process, we can note its diagnostic and educational possibilities. In addition, the professional test stimulates the formation of an adequate self-assessment of the student’s level of readiness for future professional activities, acts as an effective mechanism for the formation and development of the future professional self-concept of a person.
The role of the teacher is considered as the role of organizer, adviser, consultant, and trainer.
During the period of study in grades 7-9, students have the opportunity to test their strength in numerous professional tests. Some types of activities can become a hobby for them, not interfering, but only guiding the choice of a future profession. A teenager can choose a profession that is at the junction of two specialties.
Thus, the role of professional tests as a way of organizing the work of career guidance in a general educational institution is to create effective conditions for conscious professional self-determination of students due to the special organization of their activities, active testing of strengths in various types of professional activities, expanding knowledge about the world of professions, forming the ability to choose a field activities that optimally correspond to their characteristics and the demands of the labor market.