Components and types of computer networks

Allows you to exchange and transport data in real time using the equipment and programs included for it. types of computer networks.

Components and types of computer networks

The first computer network is a system consisting of two or more computers interconnected with each other, the connection of which allows you to exchange and transport data in real-time using the equipment and programs included for it. types of computer networks.

The main purpose of a computer network is to disseminate information instantly and efficiently to multiple users online. Therefore, computer networks are developed using a communication protocol that requires the broadcast entity, the medium through which the message is transmitted, and the recipient of the information.

Connected users can share resources, access regular storage folders, and share networked peripherals such as printers or scanners. You can even run programs on remotely connected devices using remote connection tools.

These programs are very useful for different areas; An example of this is the current remote current. Another major advantage of computer networks is the protection of all information stored in their possession, which ensures backup and integrity of the data contained therein.

Thus, computer networks greatly facilitate work and personal tasks in everyday life.

  • 1 Computer network components

  • Equipment
  • Software
  • Network Protocol
  • 2 Types of computer network

  • 1 For its use
  • 2 According to your property
  • 3 According to access data
  • 4 Depending on the geographical location and service area
  • 5 Depending on the type of connection

3 Links

Computer network components

A computer network consists of hardware and programming tools that make it possible to effectively connect elements that are part of the system. In general, the components of a computer network are as follows:


This applies to all elements that make up the physical assembly of the network. This includes all computers and peripherals connected to the network, as well as other elements that make communication between them possible. Computer network hardware consists of the following components:


This refers to the entity that emits the primary signals of the network. The sender generates signals or requests from the primary computer, which reproduces instructions to the receiver over a computer network.

Network board

Also known as a network card, this element encodes signals in binary code and makes it possible to transmit and receive data packets using secondary cables.

Similarly, network cards have an access control address for the media, known as the MAC for its acronym in English (Media Access Control).

These are the attributes of a unique 48-bit identifier for each element interconnected in the network, understood as a physical address that directly sends information to the correct workstation.

This card must be compatible with various configurations or network architectures that allow accelerated information transfer.


Computer networks can be connected by two different mechanisms. They can be wired or wireless, depending on the technology used and the physical resources available for the connection.

Wired networks

In this type of network, data is transmitted through secondary wiring. Network cables connect the transmitter to the operating equipment according to the corresponding network scheme.

Wireless networks

Wireless networks do not have any type of wiring with which the equipment has no physical connection.

In these cases, data transmission and transmission are carried out via infrared, radiofrequency waves, routers, or network bridges.

Network adapter

The decoder is located inside the receiver. Translates information encoded at the time by the network card and translates it into electrical signals that are interpreted by the target computer.

This decoder is integrated into the motherboard of the host computer and is capable of operating at different speeds.


This is the destination team; that is, the element that finally receives the signal transmitted over the entire network.

In the computer field, the receiver is also known as the client or workstation. They can be personal computers or any shared peripheral resources, such as printers, scanners, or copiers.


Refers to the operating system, programs, drivers, instructions, and computer settings that make the computer network possible.

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The hardware is nothing without a tool that facilitates the interconnection of all related items, and the configuration of the hardware is viable only through the use of the software.

The computer network software consists of the elements detailed below:

It is an application that runs the appropriate operating system and, therefore, can receive concerns from workstations and provide appropriate responses.

Operating System

This is a basic system that allows you to work together all the basic processes and programs installed in network equipment.

In addition to the above, the operating system allows users to access and effectively interact with all computers that make up the network.

The operating system forms a friendly interface at the macro level; that is, allows the transfer of all programs installed on each piece of equipment.

Thus, no program interferes with the work of another, and each tool allows you to maximize the resources associated with each other in the network.


This section covers all programs and tools that allow the user to use the equipment directly. For example office tools, databases, games, etc.

Network protocol

The network protocol establishes rules that govern the exchange and processing of data over a computer network. That is, it sets the guidelines for the network.

This item contains key information for physically connecting the equipment, as well as actions to be taken before, for example, an unknown user intervenes or corrupts data.

Types of computer network

Computer networks have a variety of classifications based on their use, ownership, or coverage of services. In each case, different related types displays.

For its use

Shared networks

These are networks that have a large number of workstations connected. For example, this applies to networks set up in commercial offices that allow hundreds of users to access regular storage folders at the same time.

Exclusive networks

This type of network uses exclusively for two or three users online. Restrictions may be related to the protection of confidential information or limited network speed.

According to your property

Private networks

These are networks set up by large corporations, medium-sized companies, small businesses, and even individuals, which can only be accessed from the terminals of identified users.

For example, a guest user does not have access to information stored on the personal computer they use, or to shared network features.

Public networks

Unlike private networks, this type of network provides access to anyone who requires the use of equipment connected to a computer network, without any restrictions.

According to access


The transmitter and receivers of the computer network physically connect. This implies restrictions on the distances that separate the radiating equipment from the respective receivers.

This is possible by laying copper wiring and connecting the equipment using the connecting ports provided for this purpose.

Wireless communication

The transmitter and workstations do not physically connect. That is, data transfer carries out without any articaling.

In this case, instead of cables and connection ports, there are wireless access points, known as WAP for its abbreviation in English (Wireless Access Point).

WAP allows you to connect devices using electromagnetic waves transmitted through the air, which can access through wireless network cards.

Combined networks

It may be the case that the computer network is a hybrid of the two previous mechanisms. That is, the network has physical and wireless connections at the same time.

According to your geographical location and coverage of services

Personal Networks (PAN)

They are smaller networks and use to connect electronic devices for personal use, such as personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobile phones, printers, etc.

This is done to make the most of all interconnected resources and to exchange data between them quickly and securely.

Data transfer via copper cables, firewire, or USB ports. Infrared, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi connect wirelessly.

Its coverage at a distance limits to only 10 meters. In addition, it runs at speeds of 10 bytes per second (bps) and 100 megabytes per second (Mbps).

Local area networks (LAN)

These networks with a limited volume depending on the proximity of the equipment. They can have radio stations up to 20 kilometers, depending on the complexity and complexity of the network.

They use for household or corporate purposes. LAN networks use in buildings or entire complexes to connect all workstations that are in them.

This is possible due to the connection points (nodes), strategically distributed throughout the infrastructure.

Data transmission carry out electronically using optical or copper cables. LANs typically run at 100 to 1000 megabytes per second (Mbps).

Metro networks (MAN)

MAN networks consist of a set of LAN networks, which allows them to have a much larger expansion area.

The design for industrial complexes, very large educational institutions, cities, or even cities. For example, local authorities use them to provide free Wi-Fi in large public places.

It can cover a distance of 10 to 50 kilometers and operates at speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps. In the latter case, this occurs if the data transmission is via optical fiber.

The wireless version of metropolitan area networks (WMAN, its abbreviation in English: Wireless Metropolitan Network) can reach up to 48 kilometers in range.

Broadband (WAN)

WANs contain a large set of LAN and MAN networks connected. This makes it possible to cover even wider areas, which can cover entire countries and regions.

WAN nodes can separate from each other at a distance of 100 to 1000 kilometers.

In this case, data transmission is via satellite or radio signals. Its operating speed is from 1 megabyte to 1 gigabyte and is an extremely reliable network.

Global Networks (GAN)

GANs allow communication between workstations located anywhere in the world. An example of this is the global positioning system, which is widely known for its acronym in English: GPS.

This type of network involves connecting multiple WANs through a fiberglass structure, which in turn is a group using international submarine cables or satellites.

Thus, the geographical coverage of GAN networks has no restrictions. Works at a transfer rate from 1.5 Mbps to 100 Gbps.

By type of connection

Star configuration

Workstations connect to the issuing entity as if it were an asterisk; the central server is in the center, and the rest of the team is located around it.

Ring configuration

All clients of the system connected, side by side, forming a circle.

Grid configuration

All devices are located with connection points with other receivers in the network; that is, they can communicate sequentially or in parallel with other interconnected elements.