At a distance of 200 km from Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza, there is an area close to the Red Sea shores called Wadi al-Jarf. You could only see mountains and mounds of barren Limestone, far and wide. But there is also such a secret spot in which some such secrets are hidden, which were buried 4500 years ago. Yes, in this deserted place, there is a limestone mound in the middle of the desert. It looks like an ordinary mound when viewed from above, but many tunnels were made by cutting stones inside it, and these tunnels were blocked with the help of stones weighing thousands of tons. Forty-five centuries ago, the Ancient Egyptians had hidden something here that they did not want to bring to the world. But when the stones were removed from the front of these tunnels for the first time, the scene inside shook the whole world. Welcome back again to Facts Hub Videos. Viewers, the magnificent pyramids of Egypt and every patch of this land are filled with fascinating mysteries. Although 118 pyramids have been found all over Egypt, many pyramids are believed to be hidden under dunes in Egypt and the African desert. At present, the largest of the pyramids that exist in the world can be found in the Egyptian city of Cairo. It is called the Pyramid of Khufu. This 480-foot high Pyramid was built by Egyptian king Khufu. Whereas next to it, this 450 feet high Pyramid was built by King Khafre, son of king Khufu during his reign. Surprisingly, 2.5 million square and rectangle blocks of Limestone were used to make each Pyramid. And the weight of each block is said to be 2500 kg. It is the same weight as the weight of two Hatchback cars. Carrying so much weight to a height of 480 feet and keeping each block at the perfect angle is a task that, in today's era, can take many years to perform, even with the help of machinery. So imagine how this work would have been done 45 centuries ago without machinery. This is such a mystery that has kept the world puzzled for the last many hundreds of years. The place where these Pyramids were built was once a flourishing city of ancient Egyptians. But then, for unknown reasons, this entire area got submerged under several feet of sand. In the year 1798, when the French military leader Napoleon came to capture Egypt. That time the Pyramid and the Sphinx were buried more than halfway through the sand. Excavation work continued for the next hundred years to remove sand. And for the first time in the 1980s, a major discovery took place here. Near the Pyramid of Khafre, the skeleton of the workers who built Khafre Pyramid. After inspecting many skeletons, it was found that these people were not enslaved because they were given good food and medical treatment. These workers were buried near the pyramids as a mark of respect for building their king's pyramids. Unfortunately, after the death of King Khufu, this place was at the mercy of grave robbers for many years. For this reason, neither any papyrus, i.e., a written document, was found from here nor any such evidence from which it can be concluded when and how these pyramids were made. Even many statues of other Egyptian kings and their Mummies were discovered. But with time, no intact statue of King Khufu is left, nor did the robbers spare his mummy. Only a finger-sized statue of King Khufu was found, which is kept in the Cairo Museum. Investigations need to be done outside Giza to know the Egyptian King Khufu and his life in detail. Archaeologists found an old seaport on the coast of the Red Sea at a distance of 200 km from the pyramid site. Which was suspected of having been used during the reign of King Khufu. This broken structure near the sea was so big that several hundred people could live and work comfortably there. When this area was thoroughly inspected, boat anchors were found inside the sea. In that era, anchors made of stones were used to dock big boats by tying ropes through them. Stone anchors with holes were found in large numbers, which proves that 4500 years ago, it used to be a seaport for ancient Egyptians. If this were a port, the boats (or their parts) that used to sail here would have been kept nearby. And the experts were looking for those boats only. After many years of hard work, Egyptologists finally found several tunnels dug with great skill inside a mound of Limestone a few kilometers away from the port. Whose entrance was blocked with the help of big stones. The probability was high that this was the place where ancient Egyptians used to hide their boats from robbers. But the archaeological team had no idea that they would get some special evidence even greater than the boats from here. When the stones were removed from the entrance of these tunnels, the scene inside was something no one had seen for the last 4,500 years. No whole boat was found in this very large and spacious store room like tunnels, but many parts of the boats were found. Apart from these parts, the name of King Khufu was also found written on many stones here. The French Egyptologist Pierre Tallet is well aware of this name as he had seen this name on many hieroglyphics before. What was written on it means, "May our God Khufu protect us." The ancient Egyptians considered their king to be God, and wherever they worked, they wrote the name of their God, i.e., king. This name written on the stone was a sign that this ancient storeroom was used during the period of King Khufu. When a detailed investigation was done in this secret storeroom, surprisingly, a dilapidated papyrus was found there. which was buried under a heavy stone. Papyrus is a thick paper made from the papyrus plant. In those days, all the paperwork was done on these papyri. Egyptologists and their team came here to search for boats, but now he had a very important document. And it is also necessary to tell you here that it was the oldest papyrus found worldwide to date. To understand what was written in this document, it is necessary to restore it first. After six years of hard work, when it was restored, it showed glimpses of King Khufu's era. The author of this papyrus was a supervisor named Merer, who worked for King Khufu. It was a record book where the supervisor wrote down his work with 40 workers. Ancient Egyptians used graphics in their language. For this reason, it is very difficult for an Egyptologist to interpret those graphics. The biggest question troubling them was what the supervisor was doing here with his 40 workers. And what work did he do for King Khufu? After many years of hard work, it was learned from papyrus that a supervisor named Merer used to unload the copper from the boat and transfer it to the Nile River with the help of donkeys. From there, he transported copper to the Pyramid site by loading it again on boats. Knowing this information, Egyptologists started to understand the whole story. There was no iron in that period, so Merer and his team used to sit in boats and go across the ocean to the Sinai Peninsula. Much copper was still found in Sinai, and after loading the copper from there, they returned to the port. He used to carry copper on the donkeys and carry them up to the Nile River. From where they used to load them again in boats to deliver them to the pyramid site. Egyptologists believe they used to deliver so much copper in just one expedition that it was enough for the next two years. And for these two years, they used to disassemble their boats and put them in this secret storeroom of Wadi al-Jarf. But the question is, where was the copper used in constructing the Pyramid? Whereas only Limestone and granite are seen here. Actually, with the help of copper, they used to make tools that were used to make blocks of Limestone. Large mountains of Limestone are present at a distance of a few kilometers from the pyramid site. and this place is called Tura. Egyptologists have found much evidence from this place, which shows that limestone blocks used in pyramids were brought from here. But how? How were 2.5-ton blocks cut out from the mountain and that too in perfect shape? To know this, it was necessary to experiment with the help of the copper tool itself. A team of archaeologists' defined their work area by first drawing the shape of a block on the Limestone and then started cutting it with the help of copper tools. At first, it seemed quite difficult to cut limestones, but then water was used. After sprinkling water, it was noticed that the speed of cutting Limestone increased by five times. It took eight days for five workers to cut a block. But archaeologists believe that because the ancient Egyptians were experienced, they would have completed this work in 4 to 5 days. Egyptologists and archaeologists could see the mystery of the construction of the Khufu Pyramid being solved. They learned from where the copper was imported by finding one important document. How a team of 40 workers with their supervisor used to hide their boats in the secret storeroom in Wadi al-Jarf and how large blocks of Limestone were cut with copper tools. The team of experts now wanted to know how after cutting down the blocks of Limestone, they carried them at the height of 480 feet to the top of the Pyramid. Unfortunately, no such clue was left behind in the pyramids that would reveal anything. For this reason, even to find out this, there was a need to find evidence outside the pyramid site. At a distance of 30 km from the pyramid site in Giza, the location of Hatnub exists amidst the scorching heat of the desert. Here the team of Archaeologists found the place where the Ancient Egyptians used to cut a special type of stone to make the statue. This stone is known as the Egyptian alabaster. Using which the Egyptian kings used to get their statues built. Big stones were cut from here to make such a big statue. And that too in one piece. A team of more than 100 workers and archaeologists had come here to know how this special stone was brought up from several feet below the ground. This site was also very special for the Archaeologists because the name of King Khufu was found in several places. There has been no work on this stone quarry for the last 45 centuries. Because of this, a lot of sand and debris has gathered here with time. But experts are very hopeful they will get some solid information from here. The excavation work continued here for several months, but apart from the rubble, nothing could be found from here. But finally, the day came when the first clue was found here. Several feet below the ground, a formation like stairs and a ramp buried under the rubble become observable. After further excavation, some unique pits also emerged on the stairs. Stairs on both sides and a ramp in the middle with a slope of around 25%. Why were the unique pits on the stairs created? Experts believed all this was made only to carry the stone from the quarry up. After much deliberation, it was concluded that wood logs were inserted in these pits. Large blocks of stone were tied with ropes, which were used to twist through these wooden logs. Due to this, it was easy for the workers to haul the stone. It can be assumed that this wooden log was used as a pulley. You must have seen the pulley system in modern cranes and lifters too. Using a pulley reduces the load on the crane's motor by up to 50%. It is now quite clear that a block of stone was placed on the middle ramp. Whereas on the stairs on both sides, the workers used to haul the stone block up with the help of ropes and wooden logs. While sand may also have been used to reduce the friction of the stone block. Archaeologists and experts had now solved the mystery of carrying thousands of kilograms of stone blocks up to a large extent. At the location of Hatnub, the same method was used to lift the stone block from the stone quarry. Then there is a high chance that similar ramps would have been made during the construction of the Pyramid. And the limestone blocks might have been hauled up like this. Viewers, it has been 4500 years since the Great Pyramid was built and for the last three hundred years, they have kept the whole world puzzled by different mysteries. Of course, Archaeologists and experts know a lot about these Pyramids. But even today, the construction of the Pyramid is considered the biggest mystery in the world. The research is still going on.